Malcolm X in Ghana

Online Reference : Malcolm X : Research site



1. Autobiography of Malcolm X, Chapter 18, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (1965)
2. "I'm not an American, I'm a victim of Americanism," speech given at University of Ghana, May 13, 1964 in Malcolm X Speaks to Young People (New edition, 1991)

Discussion Questions

1. Why is Ghana important to understand for the Black liberation movement? What was its role in the Slave trade? What was the importance of Kwame Nkrumah and his ties to the African American community? What was the connection of W E B DuBois to Ghana?
2. What was the community of African Americans in Ghana like in the 1960's? Who was there? Why were they there? How did they receive Malcolm X when he came to Ghana?
3. How was Malcolm X treated at the University of Ghana? Who opposed him and why? How did the students react?
4. What are the similarities and differences between Kwame Nkrumah and Malcolm X?

Additional Reading

1. Shirley Graham DuBois, "The Beginning Not the End - a radio talk given over Ghana Radio, March 17, 1965" in John Henry Clarke, Malcolm X: The Man an His Times (1969, 1990)
2. Leslie Lacy, "Malcolm X in Ghana," in John Henry Clarke Malcolm X: The Man and His Times (1969, 1990)
3. Leslie Lacy, "The Coming of Malcolm X" Chapter 13 in The Rise and Fall of the Proper Negro (1971)
4. Manning Marable, "Kwame Nkrumah and the Convention People's Party," Chapter 2 in African and Carribbean Politics (1987)
5. Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael), "Message from Guinea to the Opening of Malcolm X Liberation University in 1969" Chapter 13 in Stokely Speaks (1971)
6. Ronald Walters, "Black American Pan Africanism in Africa: Going Home to Ghana"Chapter 3 in Pan Africanism in the African Diaspora (1993)
7. Gerald Hore, "Race Woman : The lives of Shiley Graham Du Bois"  NY Press 
8. Kevin Games, "The Cold War and the African American Expatriate Community in  Nkrumah's Ghana," in Christopher Simpson ed., Universities and Empire: Money and Politics in the Social Services during the Cold war (New York Press, 1998) pp 135-158
9. Maya Angelon "All Gods children Need Traveling shoes"

Ghanian Times 

1.  "X is Here"   May 12, 1964
2.  "civil rights issue in US is mislabeled"   May 13, 1964
3.  "African states must force US for racial equality"   May 15, 1964
4.  "Malcolm Asibe"  May 16, 1964
5.  "Malcolm X addresses MP's "   May 17, 1964
6.  "Malcolm X really back home"    May 18, 1964
7.  "X speaks at Nkrumah  Institute"   May 18, 1964
8.  "Malcolm Murdered"   Feb 23, 1965
9.  "Malcolm will live on" (editorial)    Feb 23, 1965
10. "Malcolm X : A Tragic Loss"     Feb 24, 1965
11."Malcolm X's body laid in state"   Feb 24, 1965
12. "Malcolm X stood for Radical Equality, says Kwame  Nkrumah"     Feb 25, 1965
13. "This is political murder, Jones Farmer"   Feb 25, 1965
14. "Malcolm's assassination will not end struggle"    Feb 26, 1965
15. "Apos to hold rally in Harlem"   Feb 26, 1965
16. "Tragic end of Malcolm X"  Feb 27, 1965 

Daily Graphic (newspaper in Ghana)

1.  "Malcolm X"    May 12, 1964
2.  "Help us Negroes: Malcolm X"    May 13, 1964
3.  "Negroes need your help, says Mr. X"   May 15, 1964
4.  "Us Negroes"    May 21, 1964
5.  "Malcolm X"    May 23, 1964
6.  "Malcolm X is killed"    Feb 23, 1965
7.  "Fight for equality rages on" (editorial)   Feb 23, 1965
8.  "Kwame  Nkrumah sends his sympathy"     Feb 25, 1965
9.  "Thousands in US mourn Malcolm X"   Feb 25, 1965


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